FORMATION OF ANTIREFLECTIVE SILICON SURFACES BY ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS
Background. Application of the silicon-based porous textures as an efficient and commercially viable coating has to be maximally adapted to processes of the silicon solar cell manufacturing. To improve the antireflective property of Si frontal surface it is desirable to use methods allowing simultaneous changing of the value of refraction coefficient and the fabrication process parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to seek other, more perspective methods of the antireflective coating fabrication to improve the solar cell efficiency.
Objective. The aim of the paper is the fabricaion of antireflective coatings based on porous silicon by electrochemical and chemical methods for photovoltaic converters with improved parameters.
Methods. Electrochemical etching and metal-assisted chemical etching were used to form the textures on the Si wafer surface. The surface morphology of Si samples was examined using scanning electron microscopy, the elemental content was investigated using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer. The investigation of optical properties of obtained textures was performed using a Specord Plus spectrophotometer.
Results. The micro- and nanotextured Si surfaces with an average diameter 1 μm and 200 nm were obtained by electrochemical and metal-assisted chemical etching methods, respectively. In addition, the nanotextured Si samples had a lowest reflective coefficient in comparison with other textures.
Conclusions. Electrochemical and chemical methods are promising to fabricate the frontal antireflective Si surfaces of solar cells. It is possible to form electrochemically a microtextured porous Si surface with low reflectivity with a proper selected anodic charge density. The metal-assisted chemical etching method allowed forming a nanoporous surface on Si wafer with improved antireflective properties of Si surface in optical spectral range.
Multicrystalline silicon solar cells with porous silicon emitter /R.R. Bilyalov, R. Lüdemann, W. Wettling, et al. // Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. – 2000. – Vol. 60, N. 4. – P. 391–420.
Yerokhov V.Yu., Druzhinin A.A., Ierokhova O.V. Modification of the properties of porous silicon for solar cells by hydrogenationt // Eastern–European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. – 2015. – Vol. 2. – P. 17–23.
Formation and application of porous silicon / H. Foil, M. Christophersen, J. Carstensen and G. Hasse // Materials Science and Engineering R-Reports. – 2002. – Vol. 39. – P. 93–141.
New optical features to enhance solar cell performance based on porous silicon surfaces / A. Ramizy, Z. Hassan, K. Omar, et al. // Applied
Surface Science. – 2011. – Vol. 257. – P. 6112–6117.
Korotcenkov G., Cho B.K. Silicon porosification: state of the art // Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences. – 2010. – Vol. 35.
– P. 153–260.
Technological approaches for growth of silicon nanowire arrays / A. Druzhinin, A. Evtukh, I. Ostrovskii, et al. // Springer Proceedings in Physics. – 2015. – Vol. 156. – P. 301–308.
Sanders G.D. and Chang Y.C. Theory of optical properties of quantum wires in porous silicon // Phys. Rev. B. – 1992. – Vol. 45. – P. 9202–9213.
Micro- and nanotextured silicon for antireflective coatings of solar cells / A. Druzhinin, V. Yerokhov, S. Nichkalo and Y. Berezhanskyi // Journal of Nano Research. – 2016. – Vol. 39. – P. 89–95.
Si nanowires for antireflective coatings of photovoltaic cells / A. Druzhinin, I. Ostrovskii, V. Yerokhov, et al. // Modern Problems of Radio
Engineering, Telecommunications and Computer Science - Proceedings of
the 11th International Conference, TCSET'2012, Lviv-Slavske, Ukraine,
February 21–24 2012. – Lviv: Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic, 2012.
– P. 484–485.
Fang W., Changshui C., Fang W. Analysis of sunlight loss for femtosecond laser microstructured silicon and its solar cell efficiency //
Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. – 2011. – Vol. 103, N. 4. – P. 977–982.
Halbwax M., Sarnet T. and Delaporte P. Micro and nanostructuration
of silicon by femtosecond laser: Application to silicon photovoltaic cells fabrication // Thin Solid Films. – 2008. – Vol. 516, N. 20. – P. 6791–6795.
Zhu X., Zhu H., Liu D. Picosecond laser microstructuring for black silicon solar cells // Advanced Materials Research. – 2012. – Vol. 418–420. – P. 217–221.
Formation mechanism of nano and microcones by laser radiation
on surfaces of Si, Ge, and SiGe crystals / A. Medvid, P. Onufrijevs, R.
Jarimaviciute-Gudaitiene, et al. // Nanoscale Research Letters. – 2013. –
Vol. 8. – P. 264–271.
Porous silicon multilayer antireflection coating for solar cells; process considerations / J.H. Selj, E.S. Marstein, A. Thogersen, S.E. Foss // Physica Status Solidi (c). – 2011. – Vol. 8, N. 6. – P. 1860–1864.
Yoo J., Yu G., Yi J. Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells // Materials Science and Engineering B. – 2009. – Vol. 159–160. – P. 333–337.
Yerokhov V., Ierokhova O. Improved porous silicon-based multifunctional materials for the solar cells antireflection coating // 2016
International Conference on Electronics and Information Technology, EIT
- Conference Proceedings, Odessa, Ukraine, May 23–27 2016. –
Odessa: Politechperiodika, 2016. – P. 49–52.
Yerokhov V., Melnyk I., Tsisaruk A., Semochko I. Porous silicon in solar cell structures // Opto-electronics Review. – 2000. – Vol. 8, N. 4. –
Badawy W.A., Elmeniawy S.A., Hafez A.N. Improvement of the power of industrially fabricated solar cells by etching of the Si surface and the use of surface analytical techniques // Egypt. J. Anal. Chem. – 2013. –
Vol. 22. – P. 97–113.
Huang Y.M., Ma Q.-L. and Meng M. Porous silicon based solar cells // Materials Science Forum. – 2011. – Vol. 663–665. – P. 836–839.
Yerokhov V.Y., Melnyk I.I., Korovin A.V. External bias as the factor of efficiency increase of silicon MIS/IL solar cells // Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. – 1999. – Vol. 58. – P. 225–236.
Badawy W.A. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots // Journal of Advanced Research. – 2015.
– Vol. 6. – P. 123–132.
Sharma S., Jain K.K., Sharma A. Solar Cells: in research and applications – a review // Materials Sciences and Applications. – 2015. –
Vol. 6. – P. 1145–1155.
Yeo C.I., Song Y.M., Jang S.J., Lee Y.T. Wafer-scale broadband antireflective silicon fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching using
spin-coating Ag ink // Opt. Exp.. – 2011. – Vol. 19, N. 5, – P. A1109–16.
Tsujino K., Matsumura M., Nishimoto Y. Texturization of multicrystalline silicon wafers for solar cells by chemical treatment using
metallic catalyst // Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. – 2006. – Vol. 90, N. 1.– P. 100–109.
Chaoui R., Mahmoudi B., Ahmed Y. Porous silicon antireflection layer for solar cells using metal assisted chemical etching // Physica Status Solidi (a). – 2008. – Vol. 205, N. 7. – P. 1724–1731.
Texturing of the silicon substrate with nanopores and Si nanowires for anti-reflecting surfaces of solar cells / А.A. Druzhinin, V.Y. Yerokhov, S.I. Nichkalo, et al. // Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics. – 2015. – Vol. 7, N. 2. – P. 02030-1–02030-6.
El-Sherif R.M., Khalil Sh.A., Badawy W.A. Metal-assisted etching of p-Si – pore formation and characterization // J. Alloys Compd. – 2011. – Vol. 509. – P. 4122–4126.
Manilov A.I., Skryshevsky V.A. Hydrogen in porous silicon – A review // Materials Science and Engineering B. – 2013. – Vol. 178. – P. 942– 955.